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Did Moses Exist the Myth of the Israelite Law Giver

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For further information, see. For other uses, see and. It is one of the , and is considered to the three major —, , and. Both and the claim Jerusalem as their , as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the ultimately foresees it as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely internationally. Region 1982—present During , Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times. The part of Jerusalem called the was settled in the. During the period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE Iron Age II , and in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the. In 1538, the for a last time around Jerusalem under. Today those walls define the , which has been traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the , , , and Quarters. The Old City became a in 1981, and is on the. Since 1860 Jerusalem far beyond the Old City's boundaries. In 2015, Jerusalem had a of some 850,000 residents, comprising approximately 200,000 Israelis, 350,000 and 300,000. In 2011, the population numbered 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000 62% , Muslims 281,000 35% , Christians 14,000 around 2% and 9,000 1% were not classified by religion. According to , King conquered the city from the and established it as the capital of the , and his son, King , commissioned the building of the. These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic for the. The holiness of , conserved in the which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the account of there. In , Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after and. As a result, despite having an area of only 0. Outside the Old City stands. Today, the remains one of the core issues in the. During the , was among the areas and later annexed by Israel while , including the Old City, was captured and later by. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, together with additional surrounding territory. One of Israel's , the 1980 , refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Israel's parliament , the residences of the and , and the. While the international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as , Israel has a stronger claim to sovereignty over West Jerusalem. Further information: A city called Rušalim in the of the c. Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the of 1330s BCE. The form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim Jerusalem first appears in the Bible, in the. The earliest extra-biblical writing of the word Jerusalem is dated to the sixth or seventh century BCE and was discovered in near in 1961. The ending -ayim indicates the , thus leading to the suggestion that the name Yerushalayim refers to the fact that the city initially sat on two hills. However, the pronunciation of the last syllable as -ayim appears to be a late development, which had not yet appeared at the time of the. In Greek and Latin the city's name was transliterated Hierosolyma Greek: Ἱεροσόλυμα; in Greek hieròs, ἱερός, means holy , although the city was renamed for part of the period of its history. Other early Hebrew sources, early Christian renderings of the verse and , however, put Salem in Northern Israel near or Sichem , now , a city of some importance in early sacred Hebrew writing. Possibly the redactor of the Apocryphon of Genesis wanted to dissociate Melchizedek from the area of Shechem, which at the time was in possession of the. However that may be, later Rabbinic sources also equate Salem with Jerusalem, mainly to link Melchizedek to later Temple traditions. Official Israeli government policy mandates that أُورُشَلِيمَ, transliterated as Ūršalīm, which is the cognate of the Hebrew and English names, be used as the Arabic language name for the city in conjunction with القُدس. Main article: Given the city's central position in both Jewish nationalism and , the selectivity required to summarize some 5,000 years of inhabited history is often influenced by ideological bias or background see. In contrast, Palestinian nationalists claim the right to the city based on modern ' descent from many different peoples who have lived in the region over the centuries, rather than those from a particular period. Both sides claim the history of the city has been politicized by the other in order to strengthen their relative claims to the city, and that this is borne out by the different focuses the different writers place on the various events and eras in the city's history. Overview of Jerusalem's historical periods Age Any city, Jerusalem included, can be defined either in current administrative terms, as the area declared by legal means to be part of a municipality; or in historical terms, as the city which resulted from a process of urban development, united into one entity by a common territory, history and by virtue of its natural and social characteristics. This spreads to any related issue, such as defining the age of the city. Shuafat lies about 6 kilometres north of Jerusalem's oldest historical part, the so-called , and about 5 kilometres north of the walled Old City. Shuafat's history is distinct of that of its neighbour, Jerusalem, from its prehistoric beginnings through the biblical period, and throughout its later history until 1967. The archaeologists describe the discovery as the oldest of its kind in the region. Nadav Na'aman argues its fortification as the centre of a kingdom dates to around the 18th century BCE. In the Late Bronze Age, Jerusalem was the capital of an Egyptian vassal city-state, a modest settlement governing a few outlying villages and pastoral areas, with a small Egyptian garrison and ruled by appointees such as king , At the time of and , major construction took place as prosperity increased. Archaeological remains from the ancient period include the , an aqueduct built by king and once containing an ancient Hebrew inscription, known as the ; the so-called , a defensive fortification built in the 8th century BCE, also by Hezekiah; the with the and the , which were decorated with monumental inscriptions; and the so-called , remnants of ancient fortifications, built from large, sturdy rocks with carved cornerstones. A huge water reservoir dating from this period was discovered in 2012 near , indicating the existence of a densely built-up quarter across the area west of the Temple Mount during the Judean kingdom. When the conquered the Kingdom of Israel in 722 BCE, Jerusalem was strengthened by a great influx of refugees from the northern kingdom. The First Temple period ended around 586 BCE, as the Babylonians conquered Judah and Jerusalem, and laid waste to Solomon's Temple. Biblical account This period, when Canaan formed part of the Egyptian empire, corresponds in biblical accounts to 's invasion, but almost all scholars agree that the Book of Joshua holds little historical value for early Israel. In the Bible, Jerusalem is defined as lying within territory allocated to the though occupied by. The choice was perhaps dictated by the fact that Jerusalem did not form part of Israel's tribal system, and was thus suited to serve as the centre of its federation. Opinion is divided over whether the so-called and the nearby may be identified with King David's palace, or dates to a later period. One plan of , as reconstructed from indications in the Bible According to the Bible, King reigned for 40 years and was succeeded by his son , who built the on. On Solomon's death, ten of the northern broke with the United Monarchy to form their own nation, with its kings, prophets, priests, traditions relating to religion, capitals and temples in northern Israel. The southern tribes, together with the , remained in Jerusalem, with the city becoming the capital of the. Classical antiquity Main articles: and In 538 BCE, the invited the to return to Judah to rebuild the Temple. Sometime soon after 485 BCE Jerusalem was besieged, conquered and largely destroyed by a coalition of neighbouring states. In about 445 BCE, King issued a decree allowing the city including its walls to be rebuilt. This picture shows the temple as imagined in 1966 in the Many Jewish tombs from the have been rediscovered in Jerusalem. The , an underground complex of 63 rock-cut tombs, is located in a public park in the northern Jerusalem neighborhood of. These tombs, probably reserved for members of the and inscribed by ancient Hebrew and Aramaic writings, are dated to between 100 BCE and 100 CE. When conquered the , Jerusalem and came under Macedonian control, eventually falling to the under. In 198 BCE, lost Jerusalem and Judea to the under. The attempt to recast Jerusalem as a came to a head in 168 BCE with the successful of and his five sons against , and their establishment of the Kingdom in 152 BCE with Jerusalem as its capital. In 63 BCE, intervened in a struggle for the Hasmonean throne and captured Jerusalem, extending the influence of the over Judea. Following a short invasion by Parthians, backing the rival Hasmonean rulers, Judea became a scene of struggle between pro-Roman and pro-Parthian forces, eventually leading to the emergence of an named Herod. Herod the Great, as he was known, devoted himself to developing and beautifying the city. He built walls, towers and palaces, and , buttressing the courtyard with blocks of stone weighing up to 100 tons. Under Herod, the area of the Temple Mount doubled in size. Shortly after Herod's death, in 6 CE Judea came under direct Roman rule as the , although the Herodian dynasty through remained client kings of neighbouring territories until 96 CE. Roman rule over Jerusalem and the region was challenged in the , which ended with a. The Second Temple was destroyed in 70 CE, and the entire city was destroyed in the war. Jerusalem Mural depicting the Cardo in Byzantine era Following the Bar Kokhba revolt, Emperor combined with neighboring provinces under the new name of , replacing the name of Judea. The city was renamed , and rebuilt it in the style of a typical Roman town. Jews were prohibited from entering the city on pain of death, except for one day each year, during the holiday of. The ban was maintained until the 7th century, though Christians would soon be granted an exemption: during the 4th century, the ordered the construction of Christian holy sites in the city, including the. Burial remains from the Byzantine period are exclusively Christian, suggesting that the population of Jerusalem in Byzantine times probably consisted only of Christians. In the 5th century, the eastern continuation of the , ruled from the recently renamed , maintained control of the city. Within the span of a few decades, Jerusalem shifted from Byzantine to rule, then back to Roman-Byzantine dominion. In the of 614, after 21 days of relentless , Jerusalem was captured. Byzantine chronicles relate that the Sassanids and Jews slaughtered tens of thousands of Christians in the city, many at the , and destroyed their monuments and churches, including the. This episode has been the subject of much debate between historians. The conquered city would remain in Sassanid hands for some fifteen years until the Byzantine Emperor reconquered it in 629. Jerusalem reached a peak in size and population at the end of the Second Temple Period, when the city covered two km 2 0. Middle Ages 1455 painting of the Holy Land. Jerusalem is viewed from the west; the still retains its octagonal shape, to the right stands Al-Aqsa, shown as a church. Byzantine Jerusalem was conquered by the Arab armies of in 638 CE. The of Jerusalem began in the first year 623 CE , when Muslims were instructed to face the city while performing their daily prostrations and, according to Muslim religious tradition, Muhammad's night journey and ascension to heaven took place. After 13 years, the direction of prayer was changed to Mecca. In 638 CE the Islamic extended its dominion to Jerusalem. With the , Jews were allowed back into the city. The caliph signed a treaty with Christian Patriarch of Jerusalem , assuring him that Jerusalem's Christian holy places and population would be protected under Muslim rule. Christian-Arab tradition records that, when led to pray at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, one of the holiest sites for Christians, the caliph Umar refused to pray in the church so that Muslims would not request conversion of the church to a mosque. He prayed outside the church, where the stands to this day, opposite the entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. According to the Gaullic bishop , who lived in Jerusalem from 679 to 688, the Mosque of Umar was a rectangular wooden structure built over ruins which could accommodate 3,000 worshipers. Contemporary Arabic and Hebrew sources say the site was full of rubbish, and that Arabs and Jews cleaned it. The caliph commissioned the construction of a shrine on the Temple Mount, now known as the , in the late 7th century. Two of the city's most-distinguished Arab citizens of the 10th-century were , the geographer, and. Al-Muqaddasi writes that Abd al-Malik built the edifice on the Temple Mount in order to compete in grandeur with Jerusalem's monumental churches. Over the next four hundred years Jerusalem's prominence diminished as Arab powers in the region jockeyed for control. Jerusalem was captured in 1073 by the Turkish commander. After Atsız was killed, the Seljuk prince granted the city to , another Seljuk commander. After Artuk's death in 1091 his sons and governed in the city up to 1098 when the recaptured the city. In 1099, the Fatimid ruler expelled the native Christian population before Jerusalem was by the soldiers of the. After taking the solidly defended city by assault, the Crusaders massacred most of its Muslim and Jewish inhabitants, and made it the capital of their. The city, which had been virtually emptied, was recolonized by a variegated inflow of , , , , , , , , , Miaphysites, and others, to block the return of the surviving Muslims and Jews. The north-eastern quarter was repopulated with Eastern Christians from the Transjordan. As a result, by 1099 Jerusalem's population had climbed back to some 30,000. Under the terms of surrender, once ransomed, 60,000 Franks were expelled. The Eastern Christian populace was permitted to stay. Under the of Saladin, a period of huge investment began in the construction of houses, markets, public baths, and pilgrim hostels as well as the establishment of religious endowments. However, for most of the 13th century, Jerusalem declined to the status of a village due to city's fall of strategic value and Ayyubid internecine struggles. From 1229 to 1244, Jerusalem peacefully reverted to Christian control as a result of a 1229 treaty agreed between the crusading and , the of , that ended the. The Ayyubids retained control of the Muslim holy places, and Arab sources suggest that Frederick was not permitted to restore Jerusalem's fortifications. In 1244, Jerusalem was sacked by the , who decimated the city's Christian population and drove out the Jews. The Khwarezmian Tatars were driven out by the Ayyubids in 1247. When visited in 1267 he found only two Jewish families, in a population of 2,000, 300 of whom were Christians, in the city. From 1260 to 1517, Jerusalem was ruled by the. In the wider region and until around 1300, many clashes occurred between the Mamluks on one side, and the crusaders and the , on the other side. The area also suffered from many earthquakes and. Ottoman rule 16th—19th centuries in Jerusalem — a new holy site established by British Protestants in the 19th century. In 1517, Jerusalem and environs fell to the , who generally remained in control until 1917. Jerusalem enjoyed a prosperous period of renewal and peace under —including the rebuilding of magnificent walls around the. Throughout much of Ottoman rule, Jerusalem remained a provincial, if religiously important center, and did not straddle the main trade route between and. The Ottomans brought many innovations: modern postal systems run by the various consulates and regular stagecoach and carriage services were among the first signs of modernization in the city. In the mid 19th century, the Ottomans constructed the first paved road from Jaffa to Jerusalem, and by 1892 the railroad had reached the city. With the annexation of Jerusalem by in 1831, foreign missions and consulates began to establish a foothold in the city. In 1836, allowed Jerusalem's Jewish residents to restore four major synagogues, among them the. In the countrywide , led his forces from and attacked Jerusalem, aided by the clan, and entered the city on 31 May 1834. The Christians and Jews of Jerusalem were subjected to attacks. Ibrahim's Egyptian army routed Qasim's forces in Jerusalem the following month. Ottoman rule was reinstated in 1840, but many Egyptian Muslims remained in Jerusalem and Jews from and North Africa began to settle in the city in growing numbers. In the 1840s and 1850s, the international powers began a tug-of-war in Palestine as they sought to extend their protection over the region's religious minorities, a struggle carried out mainly through consular representatives in Jerusalem. According to the Prussian consul, the population in 1845 was 16,410, with 7,120 Jews, 5,000 Muslims, 3,390 Christians, 800 Turkish soldiers and 100 Europeans. The volume of Christian pilgrims increased under the Ottomans, doubling the city's population around Easter time. In the 1860s, new neighborhoods outside the Old City walls to house pilgrims and relieve the intense overcrowding and poor sanitation inside the city. The and were founded in 1860, followed by many others that included 1868 , 1869 , 1872 , 1873 , 1874 , 1876 , 1877 , 1880s , 1882 , 1891 , and , around the turn of the century. In 1867 an American Missionary reports an estimated population of Jerusalem of 'above' 15,000, with 4,000 to 5,000 Jews and 6,000 Muslims. Every year there were 5,000 to 6,000 Russian Christian Pilgrims. In 1872 Jerusalem became the center of a special administrative district, independent of the and under the direct authority of called the. Until the 1880s there were no formal orphanages in Jerusalem, as families generally took care of each other. In 1881 the was founded in Jerusalem with the arrival of Jewish children orphaned by a Russian. Other orphanages founded in Jerusalem at the beginning of the 20th century were 1900 and 1902. British Mandate 1917—1948 Further information: In 1917 after the , the , led by , captured the city. In 1922, the at the entrusted the United Kingdom to , neighbouring , and beyond it. The British had to deal with a conflicting demand that was rooted in Ottoman rule. Agreements for the supply of water, electricity, and the construction of a tramway system—all under concessions granted by the Ottoman authorities—had been signed by the city of Jerusalem and a Greek citizen, Euripides Mavromatis, on 27 January 1914. Work under these concessions had not begun and, by the end of the war the British occupying forces refused to recognize their validity. Mavromatis claimed that his concessions overlapped with the Auja Concession that the government had awarded to Rutenberg in 1921 and that he had been deprived of his legal rights. The Mavromatis concession, in effect despite earlier British attempts to abolish it, covered Jerusalem and other localities e. From 1922 to 1948 the total population of the city rose from 52,000 to 165,000, comprised two-thirds of Jews and one-third of Arabs Muslims and Christians. Relations between Arab Christians and Muslims and the growing Jewish population in Jerusalem deteriorated, resulting in recurring unrest. In Jerusalem, in particular, and. Under the British, new garden suburbs were built in the western and northern parts of the city and institutions of higher learning such as the were founded. However, this plan was not implemented, as the , while the British withdrew from Palestine and. In contradiction to the Partition Plan, which envisioned a separated from the Arab state and the Jewish state, Israel took control of the area which later would become West Jerusalem, along with ; Jordan took control of East Jerusalem, along with the West Bank. The war led to displacement of Arab and Jewish populations in the city. The 1,500 residents of the of the Old City were expelled and a few hundred taken prisoner when the Arab Legion captured the quarter on 28 May. Arab residents of , , and the were driven from their homes. By the time of the armistice that ended active fighting, Israel had control of 12 of Jerusalem's 15 Arab residential quarters. An estimated minimum of 30,000 people had become refugees. Israeli policemen meet a near the circa 1950 The war of 1948 resulted in the division of Jerusalem, so that the lay entirely on the Jordanian side of the. A no-man's land between East and West Jerusalem came into being in November 1948: , commander of the Israeli forces in Jerusalem, met with his Jordanian counterpart in a deserted house in Jerusalem's neighborhood and marked out their respective positions: Israel's position in red and Jordan's in green. This rough map, which was not meant as an official one, became the final in the , which divided the city and left as an Israeli inside. Barbed wire and concrete barriers ran down the center of the city, passing close by on the western side of the , and a crossing point was established at slightly to the north of the. Military skirmishes frequently threatened the ceasefire. After the establishment of the state of Israel, Jerusalem was declared its capital city. Only the United Kingdom and formally recognized such annexation, which, in regard to Jerusalem, was on a de facto basis. Some scholars argue that the view that Pakistan recognized Jordan's annexation is dubious. While Muslim holy sites were maintained and renovated, contrary to the terms of the armistice agreement, Jews were denied access to Jewish holy sites, many of which were destroyed or desecrated. Jordan allowed only very limited access to Christian holy sites, and restrictions were imposed on the that led many to leave the city. Of the 58 synagogues in the Old City, half were either razed or converted to stables and hen-houses over the course of the next 19 years, including the and the. The 3,000-year-old was desecrated, with gravestones used to build roads, latrines and Jordanian army fortifications. The was transformed into an exclusively Muslim holy site associated with. Israeli authorities neglected to protect the tombs in the Muslim in West Jerusalem, which contains the remains of figures from the early Islamic period, facilitating the creation of a parking lot and public lavatories in 1964. Many other historic and religiously significant buildings were demolished and replaced by modern structures during the Jordanian occupation. During this period, the and Al-Aqsa Mosque underwent major renovations. During the 1948 war, the Jewish residents of Eastern Jerusalem by Jordan's. Jordan allowed Arab Palestinian refugees from the war to settle in the vacated , which became known as Harat al-Sharaf. In 1966 the Jordanian authorities relocated 500 of them to the as part of plans to turn the Jewish quarter into a. Israeli rule 1967—present Map of East Jerusalem 2010 In 1967, despite Israeli pleas that Jordan remain neutral during the ,. After hand-to-hand fighting between Israeli and Jordanian soldiers on the , the captured East Jerusalem, along with the entire West Bank. On 27 June 1967, three weeks after the war ended, in the , Israel extended its law and jurisdiction to East Jerusalem, including the city's Christian and Muslim holy sites, along with some nearby West Bank territory which comprised 28 Palestinian villages, incorporating it into the Jerusalem Municipality, although it carefully avoided using the term annexation. Residents were given permanent residency status and the option of applying for Israeli citizenship. Since 1967, new Jewish residential areas have mushroomed in the eastern sector, while no new Palestinian neighbourhoods have been created. Jewish and Christian access to the holy sites inside the was restored. Israel left the under the jurisdiction of an Islamic , but opened the to Jewish access. The , which was located adjacent to the Western Wall, was evacuated and razed. On 18 April 1968, an expropriation order by the Israeli Ministry of Finance more than doubled the size of the Jewish Quarter, evicting its Arab residents and seizing over 700 buildings of which 105 belonged to Jewish inhabitants prior to the Jordanian occupation of the city. The government offered 200 to each displaced Arab family. After the Six-Day War the population of Jerusalem increased by 196%. The Jewish population grew by 155%, while the Arab population grew by 314%. The proportion of the Jewish population fell from 74% in 1967 to 72% in 1980, to 68% in 2000, and to 64% in 2010. Israeli Agriculture Minister proposed building a ring of Jewish neighborhoods around the city's eastern edges. The plan was intended to and prevent it from becoming part of an urban Palestinian bloc stretching from to. On 2 October 1977, the approved the plan, and seven neighborhoods were subsequently built on the city's eastern edges. They became known as the. Other Jewish neighborhoods were built within East Jerusalem, and Israeli Jews also settled in Arab neighborhoods. The annexation of East Jerusalem was met with international criticism. The disputes that the annexation of Jerusalem was a violation of international law. The final status of Jerusalem has been one of the most important areas of discord between Palestinian and Israeli negotiators for peace. Areas of discord have included whether the Palestinian flag can be raised over areas of Palestinian custodianship and the specificity of Israeli and Palestinian territorial borders. Main article: Prior to the creation of the State of Israel, Jerusalem served as the administrative capital of , which included present-day Israel and Jordan. As a result of the Six-Day War in 1967, the whole of Jerusalem came under Israeli control. On 27 June 1967, the government of extended Israeli law and jurisdiction to East Jerusalem, but agreed that administration of the Temple Mount compound would be maintained by the Jordanian waqf, under the Jordanian Ministry of Religious Endowments. In 1988, Israel ordered the closure of , home of the Arab Studies Society, but also the headquarters of the , for security reasons. The building reopened in 1992 as a Palestinian guesthouse. The stated that the final status of Jerusalem would be determined by negotiations with the. The accords banned any official Palestinian presence in the city until a final peace agreement, but provided for the opening of a Palestinian trade office in East Jerusalem. The Palestinian Authority regards East Jerusalem as the capital of a future Palestinian state. President has said that any agreement that did not include East Jerusalem as the capital of Palestine would be unacceptable. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has similarly stated that Jerusalem would remain the undivided capital of Israel. Due to its proximity to the city, especially the , , a Palestinian suburb of Jerusalem, has been proposed as the future capital of a Palestinian state by Israel. Israel has not incorporated Abu Dis within its security wall around Jerusalem. The Palestinian Authority has built a possible future parliament building for the in the town, and its Jerusalem Affairs Offices are all located in Abu Dis. International status This section needs additional citations for. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April 2015 While the international community regards East Jerusalem, including the entire Old City, as part of the , neither part, West or East Jerusalem, is recognized as part of the territory of Israel or the. Under the adopted by the in 1947, Jerusalem was envisaged to become a administered by the United Nations. In the war of 1948, the western part of the city was occupied by forces of the nascent state of Israel, while the eastern part was occupied by. The international community largely considers the legal status of Jerusalem to derive from the partition plan, and correspondingly refuses to recognize Israeli sovereignty over the city. Status under Israeli rule Following the 1967 , Israel extended its jurisdiction and administration over East Jerusalem, establishing new municipal borders. In 2010, Israel approved legislation giving Jerusalem the highest national priority status in Israel. The law prioritized construction throughout the city, and offered grants and tax benefits to residents to make housing, infrastructure, education, employment, business, tourism, and cultural events more affordable. The status of the city, and especially its holy places, remains a core issue in the Israeli—Palestinian conflict. The Israeli government has approved building plans in the Muslim Quarter of the Old City in order to expand the Jewish presence in East Jerusalem, while some Islamic leaders have made claims that Jews have no historical connection to Jerusalem, alleging that the 2,500-year-old Western Wall was constructed as part of a mosque. Palestinians regard Jerusalem as the capital of the , and the city's borders have been the subject of bilateral talks. A team of experts assembled by the then Israeli Prime Minister in 2000 concluded that the city must be divided, since Israel had failed to achieve any of its national aims there. A poll conducted in June 2013 found that 74% of Israeli Jews reject the idea of a Palestinian capital in any portion of Jerusalem, though 72% of the public regarded it as a divided city. A poll conducted by Palestinian Center for Public Opinion and American Pechter Middle East Polls for the Council on Foreign Relations, among East Jerusalem Arab residents in 2011 revealed that 39% of East Jerusalem Arab residents would prefer Israeli citizenship contrary to 31% who opted for Palestinian citizenship. According to the poll, 40% of Palestinian residents would prefer to leave their neighborhoods if they would be placed under Palestinian rule. At the time of Ben Gurion's proclamations and the ensuing Knesset vote of 24 January 1950, At the time Jerusalem was divided between Israel and Jordan, and thus the proclamation only applied to West Jerusalem. In July 1980, Israel passed the as. The Jerusalem Law was condemned by the international community, which did not recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. Member states were called upon to withdraw their diplomatic representation from Jerusalem. Following the resolution, 22 of the 24 countries that previously had their embassy in West Jerusalem relocated them in Tel Aviv, where many embassies already resided prior to Resolution 478. Currently, there are two embassies—United States and Guatemala—and two consulates located within the city limits of Jerusalem, and two states maintain embassies in the of and. There are located in Jerusalem, which work primarily either with Israel, or the Palestinian authorities. In 1995, the United States Congress passed the , which required, subject to conditions, that its embassy be moved from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. On 6 December 2017 officially as Israel's capital and announced his intention to move the to Jerusalem, reversing decades of United States policy on the issue. The move was criticized by many nations. A resolution condemning the US decision was supported by all the 14 other members of the UN Security Council, but was vetoed by the US on 18 December 2017, and a subsequent resolution condemning the US decision was passed in the. On May 14, 2018, the United States officially moved the location of its embassy to Jerusalem, transforming its Tel Aviv location into a consulate. Due to the general lack of international recognition of Jerusalem as Israel's capital, some non-Israeli media outlets use Tel Aviv as a for Israel. In April 2017, the Russian Foreign Ministry announced it viewed Western Jerusalem as Israel's capital in the context of UN-approved principles which include the status of East Jerusalem as the capital of the future Palestinian state. Government precinct and national institutions The building in Many national institutions of Israel are located in in in Jerusalem as a part of the project which is intended to create a large district that will house most government agencies and national cultural institutions. Some government buildings are located in. The city is home to the , the , the , the , the official residences of the and , the , and all ministries except for the which is located in central Tel Aviv's district and the which is located in , in the wider Tel Aviv , near. Jerusalem as capital of Palestine in East Jerusalem that served as the headquarters of the in the 1980s and 1990s. It was closed by Israel in 2001, two days after the. The views East Jerusalem as occupied territory according to. The Palestinian Authority claims Jerusalem, including the , as the capital of the , The PLO claims that West Jerusalem is also subject to permanent status negotiations. However, it has stated that it would be willing to consider alternative solutions, such as making Jerusalem an. The PLO's current position is that East Jerusalem, as defined by the pre-1967 municipal boundaries, shall be the capital of Palestine and West Jerusalem the capital of Israel, with each state enjoying full sovereignty over its respective part of the city and with its own municipality. A joint development council would be responsible for coordinated development. Some states, such as and , recognize the Palestinian state with East Jerusalem as its capital. Main article: The Jerusalem is a body of 31 elected members headed by the mayor, who serves a five-year term and appoints eight deputies. The former mayor of Jerusalem, , was elected in 2003. In the November 2008 city elections, came out as the winner and is now the mayor. Apart from the mayor and his deputies, City Council members receive no salaries and work on a voluntary basis. The longest-serving Jerusalem mayor was , who spent 28 years—-six consecutive terms-—in office. Most of the meetings of the Jerusalem City Council are private, but each month, it holds a session that is open to the public. Within the city council, religious political parties form an especially powerful faction, accounting for the majority of its seats. The headquarters of the Jerusalem Municipality and the mayor's office are at Kikar Safra on. The municipal complex, comprising two modern buildings and ten renovated historic buildings surrounding a large plaza, opened in 1993 moved from the. The city falls under the , with Jerusalem as the district's capital. In East Jerusalem, 52% of the land is excluded from development, 35% designated for Jewish settlements, and 13% for Palestinian use, almost all of which is already built on. Sunset aerial photograph of the Jerusalem is situated on the southern spur of a in the , which include the East and North East. The elevation of the Old City is approximately 760 m 2,490 ft. The whole of Jerusalem is surrounded by valleys and dry. The , , and Valleys intersect in an area just south of the Old City of Jerusalem. The runs to the east of the Old City and separates the from the city proper. Along the southern side of old Jerusalem is the , a steep ravine associated in biblical with the concept of or. The commenced in the northwest near the , ran south-southeasterly through the center of the Old City down to the , and divided the lower part into two hills, the Temple Mount to the east, and the rest of the city to the west the lower and the upper cities described by. Today, this valley is hidden by debris that has accumulated over the centuries. In biblical times, Jerusalem was surrounded by forests of almond, olive and pine trees. Over centuries of warfare and neglect, these forests were destroyed. Farmers in the Jerusalem region thus built stone terraces along the slopes to hold back the soil, a feature still very much in evidence in the Jerusalem landscape. Jerusalem is 60 kilometers 37 mi east of and the. On the opposite side of the city, approximately 35 kilometers 22 mi away, is the , the on Earth. Neighboring cities and towns include and to the south, and to the east, to the west, and and to the north. Climate View from the overlooking the during the snowfall of the The city is characterized by a : Csa , with hot, dry summers, and mild, wet winters. Snow flurries usually occur once or twice a winter, although the city experiences heavy every three to four years, on average, with short-lived accumulation. January is the coldest month of the year, with an average temperature of 9. The average annual precipitation is around 537 mm 21 in , with rain occurring almost entirely between October and May. Snowfall is rare, and large snowfalls are even more rare. Jerusalem received over 30 centimetres 12 in of snow on 13 December 2013, which nearly paralyzed the city. A day in Jerusalem has on average, 9. With summers averaging similar temperatures as the coastline, the maritime influence from the is strong, in particular given that Jerusalem is located on a similar latitude as scorching hot deserts not far to its east. The highest recorded temperature in Jerusalem was 44. Most of the air pollution in Jerusalem comes from vehicular traffic. Many main streets in Jerusalem were not built to accommodate such a large volume of traffic, leading to traffic congestion and more released into the air. Industrial pollution inside the city is sparse, but emissions from factories on the can travel eastward and settle over the city. Climate data for Jerusalem Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C °F 23. Since medieval times, the of Jerusalem has been divided into , , , and. Most population data pre-1905 is based on estimates, often from foreign travellers or organisations, since previous census data usually covered wider areas such as the. These estimates suggest that since the end of the , Muslims formed the largest group in Jerusalem until the mid-nineteenth century. Between 1838 and 1876, a number of estimates exist which conflict as to whether Jews or Muslims were the largest group during this period, and between 1882 and 1922 estimates conflict as to exactly when Jews became an absolute majority of the population. Current demographics The In December 2007, Jerusalem had a population of 747,600—64% were Jewish, 32% Muslim, and 2% Christian. At the end of 2005, the population density was 5,750. According to a study published in 2000, the percentage of Jews in the city's population had been decreasing; this was attributed to a higher Muslim , and Jewish residents leaving. The study also found that about nine percent of the Old City's 32,488 people were Jews. Of the Jewish population, 200,000 live in East Jerusalem settlements which are considered illegal under international law. In 2005, 2,850 new immigrants settled in Jerusalem, mostly from the United States, France and the former. In terms of the local population, the number of outgoing residents exceeds the number of incoming residents. In 2005, 16,000 left Jerusalem and only 10,000 moved in. Nevertheless, the population of Jerusalem continues to rise due to the high birth rate, especially in the and communities. Consequently, the in Jerusalem 4. The average size of Jerusalem's 180,000 households is 3. In 2005, the total population grew by 13,000 1. While 31% of the Jewish population is made up of children below the age fifteen, the figure for the Arab population is 42%. This would seem to corroborate the observation that the percentage of Jews in Jerusalem has declined over the past four decades. In 1967, Jews accounted for 74 percent of the population, while the figure for 2006 is down nine percent. Possible factors are the high cost of housing, fewer job opportunities and the increasingly religious character of the city, although proportionally, young are leaving in higher numbers. They now number 31% of the population, the same percentage as the rising Haredi population. Many move to the suburbs and coastal cities in search of cheaper housing and a more secular lifestyle. In 2009, the percentage of Haredim in the city was increasing. As of 2009 , out of 150,100 schoolchildren, 59,900 or 40% are in state-run secular and schools, while 90,200 or 60% are in Haredi schools. This correlates with the high number of children in Haredi families. While some Israelis avoid Jerusalem for its relative lack of development and religious and political tensions, the city has attracted Palestinians, offering more jobs and opportunity than any city in the or. Palestinian officials have encouraged Arabs over the years to stay in the city to maintain their claim. Palestinians are attracted to the access to jobs, , , other benefits, and Israel provides to Jerusalem residents. Arab residents of Jerusalem who choose not to have Israeli citizenship are granted an Israeli identity card that allows them to pass through checkpoints with relative ease and to travel throughout Israel, making it easier to find work. Residents also are entitled to the subsidized healthcare and social security benefits Israel provides its citizens, and have the right to vote in municipal elections. Arabs in Jerusalem can send their children to Israeli-run schools, although not every neighborhood has one, and universities. Israeli doctors and highly regarded hospitals such as are available to residents. Demographics and the Jewish-Arab population divide play a major role in the dispute over Jerusalem. In 1998, the proposed expanding city limits to the west to include more areas heavily populated with Jews. Within the past few years, there has been a steady increase in the Jewish birthrate and a steady decrease in the Arab birthrate. In May 2012, it was reported that the Jewish birthrate had overtaken the Arab birthrate. Currently, the city's birthrate stands about 4. In addition, increasing numbers of Jewish immigrants chose to settle in Jerusalem. In the last few years, thousands of Palestinians have moved to previously fully Jewish neighborhoods of East Jerusalem, built after the 1967 Six-Day War. In 2007, 1,300 Palestinians lived in the previously exclusively Jewish neighborhood of and constituted three percent of the population in. In the neighborhood, Palestinians today constitute one-sixth of the overall population. At the end of 2008, the population of East Jerusalem was 456,300, comprising 60% of Jerusalem's residents. Of these, 195,500 43% are Jews, comprising 40% of the Jewish population of Jerusalem as a whole , 260,800 57% are Muslim comprising 98% of the Muslim population of Jerusalem. In 2008, the reported the number of Palestinians living in East Jerusalem was 208,000 according to a recently completed census. Jerusalem's Jewish population is overwhelmingly religious. Only 21% of Jewish residents are secular. In addition, comprise 30% of the city's adult Jewish population. In a phenomenon seen rarely around the world, the percentage of Jewish men who work, 47%, is exceeded by the percentage of Jewish women who work, 50%. The young and less religious continue to leave according to a 2016 Central Bureau of Statistics report which noted 6,740 people left. The opening of high speed rail transit to Tel Aviv next year and the New Business District currently under construction is designed to alter business, tourism, and hopefully reverse the population exodus. Jerusalem had a population of 801,000 in 2011, of which Jews comprised 497,000 62% , Muslims 281,000 35% , Christians 14,000 around 2% and 9,000 1% were not classified by religion. Urban planning issues Critics of efforts to promote a Jewish majority in Jerusalem say that government planning policies are motivated by demographic considerations and seek to limit Arab construction while promoting Jewish construction. In recent years, private Jewish foundations have received permission from the government to develop projects on disputed lands, such as the archaeological park in the 60% Arab neighborhood of adjacent to the Old City , and the on Mamilla Cemetery adjacent to Zion Square. The , where most Christians believe Jesus rose from the dead Jerusalem has been sacred to Judaism for roughly 3000 years, to Christianity for around 2000 years, and to Islam for approximately 1400 years. The 2000 Statistical Yearbook of Jerusalem lists 1204 synagogues, 158 churches, and 73 mosques within the city. Despite efforts to maintain peaceful religious coexistence, some sites, such as the Temple Mount, have been a continuous source of friction and controversy. Jerusalem has been sacred to the Jews since King David proclaimed it his capital in the 10th century BCE. Jerusalem was the site of and the Second Temple. Synagogues around the world are traditionally built with the Holy Ark facing Jerusalem, and Arks within Jerusalem face the Holy of Holies. As prescribed in the and codified in the , daily prayers are recited while facing towards Jerusalem and the Temple Mount. Christianity reveres Jerusalem for its history, and also for its significance in the life of Jesus. According to the , Jesus was brought to Jerusalem soon after his birth and later in his life cleansed the Second Temple. The , believed to be the site of Jesus' , is located on in the same building that houses the. Another prominent Christian site in Jerusalem is , the site of the. The describes it as being located outside Jerusalem, but recent archaeological evidence suggests Golgotha is a short distance from the Old City walls, within the present-day confines of the city. The land currently occupied by the is considered one of the top candidates for Golgotha and thus has been a Christian pilgrimage site for the past 2000 years. Jerusalem is the third-holiest city in Sunni Islam. For approximately a year, before it was permanently switched to the in , the direction of for Muslims was Jerusalem. The city's lasting place in Islam, however, is primarily due to 's c. Muslims believe Muhammad was miraculously transported one night from to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, whereupon he ascended to to meet previous. The first verse in the 's notes the destination of Muhammad's journey as al-Aqsa the farthest mosque, in reference to the location in Jerusalem. The , the recorded sayings of the Prophet Mohammad, name Jerusalem as the location of the Al-Aqsa Mosque. The , derived from the name mentioned in the , was built on the Temple Mount under the Umayyad Caliph to commemorate the place from which Muslims believe Muhammad ascended to Heaven. Historically, Jerusalem's economy was supported almost exclusively by religious pilgrims, as it was located far from the major ports of and. Jerusalem's religious and cultural landmarks today remain the top draw for foreign visitors, with the majority of tourists visiting the and the , In 2010, Jerusalem was named the top leisure travel city in Africa and the Middle East by. The government, centered in Jerusalem, generates a large number of jobs, and offers subsidies and incentives for new business initiatives and start-ups. Although Tel Aviv remains Israel's financial center, a growing number of companies are moving to Jerusalem, providing 12,000 jobs in 2006. Northern Jerusalem's industrial park and the in south Jerusalem are home to large centers of international tech companies, among them , , , , , , and more. Higher than average percentages are employed in education 17. During the British Mandate, a law was passed requiring all buildings to be constructed of in order to preserve the unique historic and aesthetic character of the city. Complementing this building code, which is still in force, is the discouragement of in Jerusalem; only about 2. Although many statistics indicate economic growth in the city, since 1967, has lagged behind the development of. Nevertheless, the percentage of households with employed persons is higher for Arab households 76. The unemployment rate in Jerusalem 8. Poverty remains a problem in the city as 37% of the families in Jerusalem lived in 2011 below the poverty line. According to a report by the ACRI , 78% of Arabs in Jerusalem lived in poverty in 2012, up from 64% in 2006. While the ACRI attributes the increase to the lack of employment opportunities, infrastructure and a worsening educational system, blames the legal status of Palestinians in Jerusalem. High-rise construction Jerusalem has traditionally had a low-rise skyline. About 18 tall buildings were built at different times in the downtown area when there was no clear policy over the matter. One of them, Holyland Tower 1, Jerusalem's tallest building, is a by international standards, rising 32 stories. Holyland Tower 2, which has been approved for construction, will reach the same height. A new master plan for the city will see many high-rise buildings, including skyscrapers, built in certain, designated areas of downtown Jerusalem. Under the plan, towers will line and. One of the proposed towers along King George Street, the Migdal Merkaz HaYekum, is planned as a 65-story building, which would make it one of the tallest buildings in Israel. At the entrance to the city, near the and the , twelve towers rising between 24 and 33 stories will be built, as part of a complex that will also include an open square and an serving a new express line between Jerusalem and , and will be connected by bridges and underground tunnels. Eleven of the skyscrapers will be either office or apartment buildings, and one will be a 2,000-room hotel. The complex is expected to attract many businesses from Tel Aviv, and become the city's main business hub. In addition, a complex for the city's courts and the prosecutor's office will be built, as well as new buildings for Central Zionist Archives and. The skyscrapers built throughout the city are expected to contain public space, shops, restaurants, and entertainment venues, and it has been speculated that this may lead to a revitalization of downtown Jerusalem. In August 2015, the city council approved construction of a 344-foot pyramid-shaped skyscraper designed by and Yigal Levi, in place of a rejected previous design by Libeskind; it is set to break ground by 2019. Jerusalem is served by highly developed communication infrastructures, making it a leading logistics hub for Israel. The , located on , is the busiest bus station in Israel. It is served by , which is the second-largest bus company in the world, The serves the -Jerusalem route along with Egged, and serves the routes between Jerusalem, , and. The companies operate from. Arab neighborhoods in and routes between Jerusalem and locations in the are served by the , a transportation hub located near the Old City's. The initiated service in August 2011. According to plans, the first rail line will be capable of transporting an estimated 200,000 people daily, and has 23 stops. The route is from Pisgat Ze'ev in the north via the Old City and city center to Mt. Herzl in the south. Its terminus will be a 80 m 262. Construction is progressing on parts of a 35-kilometer 22 mi around the city, fostering faster connection between the suburbs. The eastern half of the project was conceptualized decades ago, but reaction to the proposed highway is still mixed. Jerusalem is served by , some 50 kilometres 31 miles northwest of the Jerusalem, on the route to. In the past it was also served by the local. Atarot ceased operation in 2000. Hand in Hand, a bilingual Jewish-Arab school in Jerusalem Jerusalem is home to several prestigious universities offering courses in , and English. Founded in 1925, the has been ranked among the top 100 schools in the world. The Board of Governors has included such prominent Jewish intellectuals as and. The university has produced several laureates; recent winners associated with Hebrew University include , , and. One of the university's major assets is the , which houses over five million books. The library opened in 1892, over three decades before the university was established, and is one of the world's largest repositories of books on Jewish subjects. Today it is both the central library of the university and the national library of Israel. The Hebrew University operates three campuses in Jerusalem, on , on and a medical campus at the. New York and Al-Quds University agreed to open a joint college in a building originally built to house the and 's office. The college gives degrees. Al-Quds University resides southeast of the city proper on a 190,000 square metres 47 acres campus. Other institutions of higher learning in Jerusalem are the and , whose buildings are located on the campuses of the Hebrew University. It is one of many schools in Jerusalem, from elementary school and up, that combine secular and religious studies. Numerous religious educational institutions and , including some of the most prestigious yeshivas, among them the Brisk, Chevron, and , are based in the city, with the Mir Yeshiva claiming to be the largest. There were nearly 8,000 twelfth-grade students in Hebrew-language schools during the 2003—2004 school year. However, due to the large portion of students in frameworks, only fifty-five percent of twelfth graders took exams and only thirty-seven percent were eligible to graduate. Unlike , many Haredi schools do not prepare students to take standardized tests. To attract more university students to Jerusalem, the city has begun to offer a special package of financial incentives and housing subsidies to students who rent apartments in downtown Jerusalem. Schools for Arabs in Jerusalem and other parts of Israel have been criticized for offering a lower quality education than those catering to Israeli Jewish students. While many schools in the heavily Arab are filled to capacity and there have been complaints of overcrowding, the Jerusalem Municipality is currently building over a dozen new schools in the city's Arab neighborhoods. Schools in and opened in 2008. In March 2007, the Israeli government approved a 5-year plan to build 8,000 new classrooms in the city, 40 percent in the Arab sector and 28 percent in the Haredi sector. A budget of 4. Arab high school students take the matriculation exams, so that much of their curriculum parallels that of other Israeli high schools and includes certain Jewish subjects. The , housing the Dead Sea Scrolls, at the Although Jerusalem is known primarily for its , the city is also home to many artistic and cultural venues. The attracts nearly one million visitors a year, approximately one-third of them tourists. The 20-acre 81,000 m 2 museum complex comprises several buildings featuring special exhibits and extensive collections of Judaica, archaeological findings, and Israeli and European art. The , discovered in the mid-20th century in the near the Dead Sea, are housed in the Museum's. The Youth Wing, which mounts changing exhibits and runs an extensive art education program, is visited by 100,000 children a year. The museum has a large outdoor sculpture garden and a scale-model of the. The in downtown Jerusalem houses the paintings of and the Judaica collections of her husband, an ophthalmologist who opened Jerusalem's first eye clinic in this building in 1912. Next to the Israel Museum is the , near , which includes the offices. A planned is to be located on the nearby promenade, overlooking the Old City. The , located in East Jerusalem, was the first archaeological museum in the Middle East. It was built in 1938 during the British Mandate. In 2006, a 38 km 24 mi was opened, a hiking trail that goes to many cultural sites and in and around Jerusalem. The has ranked consistently as Israel's top tourist attraction for Israelis. The national cemetery of Israel is located at the city's western edge, near the on. The western extension of Mount Herzl is the Mount of Remembrance, where the main Holocaust museum of Israel is located. It houses an estimated 100,000 books and articles. The complex contains a state-of-the-art museum that explores the genocide of the Jews through exhibits that focus on the personal stories of individuals and families killed in the Holocaust. An art gallery featuring the work of artists who perished is also present. Further, Yad Vashem commemorates the 1. The , established in the 1940s, has appeared around the world. The Binyanei HaUma near the entrance to city houses the. The Jerusalem Cinemateque, the formerly Beit Ha'Am in downtown Jerusalem, the in , and the Targ Music Center in also present the arts. The , featuring indoor and outdoor performances by local and international singers, concerts, plays, and street theater has been held annually since 1961, and Jerusalem has been the major organizer of this event. The in the neighborhood hosts over 150 concerts a year, as well as theater and dance companies and performing artists from overseas. The , located in a opposite the old Jerusalem train station, is the city's only theater. The station itself has become a venue for cultural events in recent years as the site of Shav'ua Hasefer an annual week-long book fair and outdoor music performances. The is held annually, screening Israeli and international films. In 1974 the was founded. In 1981 it was moved to a new building on Hebron Road near the and the Old City. Jerusalem was declared the in 2009. Jerusalem is home to the , which engages in cultural preservation as well as innovation, working to rekindle Palestinian interest in the arts. The on the Temple Mount, established in 1923, houses many Islamic artifacts, from tiny flasks and rare manuscripts to giant marble columns. Al-Hoash, established in 2004, is a gallery for the preservation of Palestinian art. In 2009, a four-day culture festival was held in the suburb of Jerusalem, attended by more than 15,000 people The Museum on the Seam, which explores issues of coexistence through art, is situated on the road dividing eastern and western Jerusalem. The Jerusalem Center for Middle Eastern Music and Dance is open to Arabs and Jews and offers workshops on Jewish-Arab dialogue through the arts. The Jewish-Arab Youth Orchestra performs both European classical and Middle Eastern music. In 2008, the , an outdoor sculpture by , was erected on a hill between Jewish and Arab as a symbol of Jerusalem's quest for peace. Media Jerusalem is the state broadcasting center of Israel. The 's main office is located in Jerusalem, as well as the TV and radio studios for , , , and part of the radio studios of. Local newspapers include and. Sports , The two most popular sports are soccer and basketball. Fans include political figures who often attend its games. Jerusalem's other major football team, and one of Beitar's top rivals, is Whereas Beitar has been champion seven times, Hapoel has won the Cup only once. Beitar has won the top league six times, while Hapoel has never succeeded. Beitar plays in the more prestigious , while Hapoel is in the second division. Since its opening in 1992, has been Jerusalem's primary football stadium, with a capacity of 31,733. The most popular Palestinian football club is since 1976 which plays in. The club hails from at Jerusalem, part of the , and plays at the at , across the. In basketball, is one of the top teams in the. The club has won Israel's championship in 2015, the four times, and the in 2004. The , established in 2011, is an international marathon race held annually in Jerusalem in the month of March. The full 42-kilometer race begins at the Knesset, passes through Mount Scopus and the Old City's Armenian Quarter, and concludes at Sacher Park. In 2012, the Jerusalem Marathon drew 15,000 runners, including 1,500 from fifty countries outside Israel. A popular non-competitive sports event is the , held annually during the festival. But the documents of the 's Negotiations Affairs Department NAD often refer to rather than the whole of Jerusalem as a future capital, and sometimes as the current capital. The presidential residence, government offices, supreme court and parliament are located there. The State of Palestine according to the Basic Law of Palestine, Title One: Article 3 regards Jerusalem as its capital. The UN and most countries do not recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital, taking the position that the final status of Jerusalem is pending future negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. Most countries maintain their embassies in and its suburbs or suburbs of Jerusalem, such as see and PDF. Some of the Palestinian villages and neighborhoods have been relinquished to the de facto by way of the , but their legal statuses have not been reverted. On the annexation of East Jerusalem, Israel also incorporated an area of the West Bank into the Jerusalem municipal area which represented more than ten times the area of East Jerusalem under Jordanian rule. Basic Law of Palestine. Retrieved: 9 December 2012. Nothing is agreed until everything is agreed. Palestinian vision for Jerusalem... Pursuant to our vision, East Jerusalem, as defined by its pre-1967 occupation municipal borders, shall be the capital of Palestine, and West Jerusalem shall be the capital of Israel, with each state enjoying full sovereignty over its respective part of the city. Palestine's capital, East Jerusalem... The Palestinian acceptance of the 1967 border, which includes East Jerusalem, is a painful compromise:... Jerusalem has always been and remains the political, administrative and spiritual heart of Palestine. Occupied East Jerusalem is the natural socio-economic and political center for the future Palestinian state. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved September 26, 2017. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 19 September 2017. Archived from on 31 October 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2017. Archived from on 3 June 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2008. According to Eric H. Cline's tally in Jerusalem Besieged. Retrieved 16 April 2007. Eerdmans Publishing — via Google Books. Jerusalem in the 19th Century, The Old City. UNESCO World Heritage Convention. Retrieved 11 September 2010. Retrieved 4 August 2017. The Associated Press via The Washington Post. Retrieved 10 March 2007. Retrieved 3 January 2014. For a thousand years Jerusalem was the seat of Jewish sovereignty, the household site of kings, the location of its legislative councils and courts. In exile, the Jewish nation came to be identified with the city that had been the site of its ancient capital. Jews, wherever they were, prayed for its restoration. To Rule Jerusalem, University of California Press, 2000, p. For Jews Jerusalem is sacred simply because it exists... Though Jerusalem's sacred character goes back three millennia... The Holy City: Jerusalem in the theology of the Old Testament, Liturgical Press, 2000, p. No other city has played such a dominant role in the history, politics, culture, religion, national life and consciousness of a people as has Jerusalem in the life of Jewry and Judaism. Since King David established the city as the capital of the Jewish state circa 1000 BCE, it has served as the symbol and most profound expression of the Jewish people's identity as a nation. Retrieved 28 March 2007. The Isaiah section where they occur belong to deutero-Isaiah. Eerdmans Publishing, 2012 p. The concept is attested in Mesopotamian literature, and the epithet may serve to distinguish Babylon, the city of exiles, from the city of the Temple, to where they are enjoined to return. The Bible and Interpretation. Retrieved 10 July 2013. The available texts of antiquity indicate that the concept was created by one or more personalities among the Jewish spiritual leadership, and that this occurred no later than the 6th century B. Lienhard, The Bible, the Church, and Authority: The Canon of the Christian Bible in History and Theology, Liturgical Press, 1995 pp. But at the end of the first century C. What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam. Religion and State: The Muslim Approach to Politics. The third holiest city of Islam—Jerusalem—is also very much in the center... The Holy City: Jerusalem in the Theology of the Old Testament. Jerusalem has always enjoyed a prominent place in Islam. Jerusalem is often referred to as the third holiest city in Islam... Cambridge History of Islam. Retrieved 9 June 2008. A Will to Survive — Israel: the Faces of the Terror 1948-the Faces of Hope Today. Journal of Palestine Studies. University of California Press, Institute for Palestine Studies. East Jerusalem is regarded as occupied Palestinian territory by the international community, but Israel says it is part of its territory. United Nations Department of Public Information. East Jerusalem has been considered, by both the General Assembly and the Security Council, as part of the occupied Palestinian territory. Akram; Michael Dumper; Michael Lynk. As we have noted previously the international legal status of Jerusalem is contested and Israel's designation of it as its capital has not been recognized by the international community. However its claims of sovereign rights to the city are stronger with respect to West Jerusalem than with respect to East Jerusalem. What, then, is Israel's status in west Jerusalem? Two main answers have been adduced: a Israel has sovereignty in this area; and b sovereignty lies with the Palestinian people or is suspended. Retrieved 19 August 2010. Nadav Na'aman, Canaan in the 2nd Millennium B. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren eds. Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, tr. Eerdmann, Grand Rapids Michigan, Cambridge, UK 1990, Vol. Retrieved 11 September 2010. Retrieved 17 December 2011. Johannes Bottereck, Helmer Ringgren, Heinz-Josef Fabry, eds. Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, tr. Translated by Henrietta Szold Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. Archived from on 10 March 2003. Retrieved 26 April 2007. The epithet may have originated in the ancient name of Jerusalem—Salem after the pagan deity of the city , which is etymologically connected in the Semitic languages with the words for peace shalom in Hebrew, salam in Arabic. Honolulu, Hawaii: Reprinted from 1898 edition by University Press of the Pacific. Retrieved 17 December 2011. The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV. Retrieved 17 December 2011. Center for Conflict Studies. Archived from on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2011. Wouldstra, The Book of Joshua, William B. Grand Rapids, Michigan 1981 1995, p. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 17 December 2011. New York: Arno Press. Jerusalem: The Topography, Economics and History from the Earliest Times to A. The termination -aim or -ayim used to be taken as the ordinary termination of the dual of nouns, and was explained as signifying the upper and lower cities see here , p. Schmidt, eds The Quest for the Historical Israel, Society of Biblical Literature, 2007 p. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. The Complete Guide to the Temple Mount Excavations. Jerusalem: Shoham Academic Research and Publication. The Temple Studies Group. Retrieved 24 January 2015. Archived from on 27 April 2007. Women, the Family, and Divorce Laws in Islamic History. Retrieved 22 September 2010. No other city has played such a dominant role in the history, culture, religion and consciousness of a people as has Jerusalem in the life of Jewry and Judaism. Throughout centuries of exile, Jerusalem remained alive in the hearts of Jews everywhere as the focal point of Jewish history, the symbol of ancient glory, spiritual fulfillment and modern renewal. Palestine's claim to Jerusalem is founded on the longtime status of the Palestinian Arabs as the majority population of Palestine. On that basis the Palestinians claim sovereignty over all of Palestine. The Palestinians claim descent from the Canaanites, the earliest recorded inhabitants of Palestine. Although political control changed hands many times through history, this population, which was Arabized by the Arab conquest of the seventh century A. Their initial perception of Palestine's geography: the rocks, caves, water springs, and trees have come to imbue the holy land with its mythos. Their perception, intuition, and interaction with the natural environment, structured and conditioned the unique socio-economic system, religion, and spiritual legacy that the diverse Semitic and non-Semitic ethnic later settlers adapted themselves to. The dynamic process of ecological adaptation to an ever-shifting environment, the cultural diversity of which the Canaanite nascent city-states were composed, and the influences of the various peoples with whom the Palestinians came into contact have never ceased. The rain-dependent frail ecosystem, which is vulnerable to dramatic climatic changes, has dynamically prodded an ever-shifting process of adaptations. These peoples are innumerable and include the Hurrites, Jebusites, Canaanites, Hebrews, Edomites, Arameans, and Arabs. Ancient non-Semitic peoples were composed of diverse Greeks from Crete, Ionia, the Black Sea, Anatolia, and Lydia, and were followed by Hellenic Greeks, Roman legions, Persians, Byzantines, Crusaders, Kurds, Turks. In modern history Egyptians, British, Jordanians, and Israelis played an ever-increasing role in reorganizing the ecological system, expanding our resources in new directions, and reshaping Palestinian modern identity. Heirs to all these peoples and cultures, Palestinians can claim neither racial genetic purity nor ontological cultural homogeneity. Acutely aware of the distinctiveness of Palestinian history, the Palestinians saw themselves as the heirs of its rich associations. Retrieved 22 September 2010. Retrieved 22 September 2010. The New York Times. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 26 October 2009. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. Jerusalem: Life Throughout the Ages in a Holy City. Bar-Ilan University, Ingeborg Rennert Center for Jerusalem Studies. Retrieved 18 January 2007. Cahill, 'Jerusalem at the time of the United Monarchy', in Andrew G. Jerusalem in Bible and Archaeology: The First Temple Period, Society of Biblical Literature, 2003 p. Retrieved 7 December 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2012. Archived from on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2007. Noll, Canaan and Israel in Antiquity: An Introduction, Continuum Publishing, 2002 p. The New York Times. Retrieved 24 May 2007. The Quest for the Historical Israel, Society of Biblical Literature, 2007 pp. Rusten; Philip Comfort; Walter A. Elwell 28 February 2005. The Complete Book of When and Where: in the Bible and Throughout History. Tyndale House Publishers, Inc. Archived from on 2006-09-17. Retrieved 22 January 2007. Retrieved 22 January 2007. Retrieved 11 September 2010. Between Rome and Jerusalem: 300 Years of Roman-Judaean Relations. Retrieved 22 January 2007. The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures. The University of Chicago Press. Jerusalem was besieged and captured by a coalition of hostile neighboring states, Edom, Moab, Ammon, Tyre, and Philistia. Its walls were torn down, its buildings razed, the Temple itself burned and destroyed, at least in part, and the great mass of the people scattered... Retrieved 11 September 2010. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 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(Video) The Gosford Glyphs - Ancient Egyptian Connection to Australia, or Elaborate Hoax? NEW EVIDENCE!

Lost, buried, or hidden materials of this order are prime archeological material. The cuneiform inscribed tablets of Babylonia and Assyria, dug up in thousands in both imperial areas, have recovered a whole lit. Objects have been found at Byblos naming the 13th Dynasty Egyptian king , and the rulers of Byblos maintained close relationships with the New Kingdom pharaohs of Ancient Egypt. Lamech 3126 to 2349 B. Retrieved 1 July 2017. In Late Antiquity, the city was known as Christoupolis. Diggers like Layard and Koldewey, indeed the great Schliemann at Troy, were almost as destructive in their investigations as the first looters of Pompeii and the perennial robbers of Etruscan and Egyp. It is important then that the biblical records of the Patriarchs and the early Israelites be lifted out of the category of fable and recognized as true stories. From a survey of the central hill country Finkelstein does not connect the Egyptian conquest with the end of the Middle Bronze Age.

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